السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته,
Today we’re looking at the 8th of the 15 types of nouns in نَصْب, which is اسْمُ لا (the noun that is negated by لا). There are several scenarios here, so you’ll have to pay attention to this one!
Negation using لا
اعْلَمْ أَنّ “لا” تَنْصِبُ النَّكِراتِ بِغَيْرِ تَنْوِيْنٍ إذا باشَرَتِ النَّكِرَةَ وَلَمْ تَتَكَرَّرْ “لا” نَحْوُ: لا رَجُلَ فِي الدّارِ
Know that لا nasb-izes indefinite nouns without tanwin if it is immediately before the indefinite noun and is not repeated, as in لا رَجُلَ فِي الدّارِ (“there is no man in the house”).
The categorical لا (used for negating the information in the khabar for an entire category) has the same effect as the إنّ family on a sentence (i.e. it nasb-izes a noun and makes it its ism and leaves the khabar in raf’). It is different from a لا that simply negates the truthfulness of the sentence. If these four conditions are present, it’s mandatory for this لا to have this effect.
- The ism (noun) has to be indefinite – if it’s definite, then we’re no longer talking about a category and it makes no sense to use لا this way
- لا has to be immediately before it (nothing can come between them, not even the khabar)
- The khabar of the sentence must also be indefinite
- The word لا is not repeated
اِسْمُ لا (The ism of لا)
The ism of لا can be:
- مُفْرَد (A single word) – Whatever is not a mudhaaf or something that resembles a mudhaaf. It will be in nasb using fathah or another indicator. It can be a singular noun, dual, broken plural, sound masculine plural or sound feminine plural. We’ll see this again when we do the مُنادى (the one who is called or addressed)
- لا رَجُلَ فِي الدّارِ (“There’s no man in the house”) – Using fathah for singular nouns and broken plurals
- لا رَجُلَيْنِ فِي الدّارِ (“There are not two men in the house”) – Using ي for duals and sound masculine plurals
- لا صالِحاتِ الْيَوْمَ (“There are not good women today”) – Using kasrah for sound feminine plurals
- Mudhaaf (added) to an indefinite noun – It will be in nasb using fathah or another indicator, as in لا طالِبَ عِلْمٍ مَمْقُوْتٌ (“There’s no student of knowledge who is loathed”)
- الشَبِيْهُ بِالْمُضاف – Resembles a mudhaaf. Something that completes the meaning of it will connect to it. It has the same rule as the mudhaaf. For example: لا مُسْتَقِيْماً حالُهُ بَيْنَ الناسِ (“There is no one whose condition is straight among the people”)
Dropping one of the conditions of obligating nasb
If we drop one of the four conditions above that make nasb mandatory for the word after لا, then nasb can become optional or even forbidden.
فَإن لَمْ تُباشِرْها وَجَبَ الرَّفْعُ وَوَجَبَ تَكْرارُ “لا” نَحْوُ: لا فِي الدّارِ رَجُلٌ وَلا امْرَأةٌ
If it (لا) does not immediately precede it (the noun), then raf’ and the repetition of لا are mandatory, as in لا فِي الدّارِ رَجُلٌ وَلا امْرَأةٌ (“There is not in the house a man, nor a woman”). [Read more…] about اسْمُ لا (The noun negated by لا)