السلام عليكم and welcome back! By now, we’ve touched on the concept of how words show their status (explicitly or implicitly) through changes in their endings. Now we’re going more into what statuses are possible for a word to be in.
َوَ أقْسامُها أرْبَعَةٌ: رَفْعٌ وَنَصْبٌ وَخَفْضٌ وَجَزْمٌ, فَلِلْأسْماءِ مِنْ ذَلِكَ الرَفْعُ وَالنَصْبُ وَالخَفْضُ وَلا جَزْمَ فِيْها, وَلِلْأفْعالِ مِنْ ذَلِكَ الرَفْعُ وَالنَّصْبُ وَالْجَزْمُ, وَلا خَفْضَ فِيْها
The four divisions of grammatical status are: رَفْعٌ (raf’), نَصْبٌ (nasb), خَفْضٌ (khafdh) and جَزْمٌ (jazm). From that (list), اسم’s have raf’, nasb and khafdh, and no jazm, and فِعل’s have raf’, nasb and jazm, and no khafdh.
Altogether, there are four possible states for the ism and the fi’l:
- الرَفْع (Raf’)
- النَصْب (Nasb)
- الخَفْض (Khafdh), also known as الجَرّ (jarr)
- الجَزْم (Jazm)
Each of these has a linguistic and grammatical meaning.
Linguistically, it means “to be high and to rise up”. In grammar, it is “a specific change whose sign is ضَمّة (dhammah) and what substitutes for it”. By “what substitutes for it” we mean that the even though the dhammah is the default sign of this state, some words show this state using something else. Raf’ occurs in both the اسم (ism) and the فِعْل (fi’l). For example:
- يَقُومُ عَلِيٌّ (“Ali stands”)
- يَصْدَحُ الْبُلْبُلُ (“The nightingale sings”).
Each of these sentences has a verb followed by a noun, with dhammah at the end being the sign of raf’ for both.
Linguistically, it is to “stand straight and upright”. Grammatically, it is “a specific change whose sign is فَتْحَة (fathah) and whatever substitutes for it”. It also occurs in both the اسم and the فعل, as in:
لَنْ أُحِبَّ الْكَسَلَ (“I will not like laziness”)
The word ّأُحِب is a verb that is in nasb because of the particle ْلَن, and the word الكَسلَ is in nasb because it’s a noun that is the object of the action. Both of these words show that using fathah.
الخَفْض (khafdh), also known as الجَرّ (jarr)
Linguistically, it is “to sink low”. Grammatically, it is “a specific change whose sign is كَسْرَة (kasrah) and whatever substitutes for it”. It only occurs in the noun, as in:
تَألَّمْتُ مِنَ الكَسُولِ (“I suffered due to the lazy one”)
The word الكسول is in khafdh because the word before it (مِن) is one of the particles of خفض , and it shows status using kasrah.
Note: Another name for this state is الجَرّ (“dragging”), which kind of makes sense because when you drag something you drag it low. Khafdh and jarr are interchangeable and mean the same thing when we’re talking about grammar. So if you see me calling it khafdh in some places and jarr in others, please don’t freak out!
Linguistically, it means “to cut”. Grammatically, it is “a specific change whose sign is سُكُون and whatever substitutes for it”. It only occurs in the فِعل مُضارِع (the present tense verb), as in:
لَمْ يَفُزْ مُتَكاسِلٌ (“A lazy person has not won”).
The word يَفُزْ is in جزم because of the particle ْلَم before it, and shows it using سكون.
So, the types of إعْراب fall into three :
- Shared between isms and fi’l‘s: raf’ and nasb
- Exclusively for isms: jarr
- Exclusively for fi’l’s: jazm