السلام عليكم ورحمة الله,
Today we’re going to do the 7th of the 15 types of nouns in نَصْب, which is الاسْتِثْناء (the exception).
Words used to make exceptions
حُرُوْفُ الاسْتِثْناءِ ثَمانِيَةٌ، وَهِيَ: إِلاّ، وَغَيْرٌ، وَسِوَى، وَسُوَى، وَسَواءٌ، وَخَلا، وَعَدَا، وَحَاشَا
The particles of exception are eight in number, and they are إِلاّ (illaa), غَيْرٌ (ghayr), سِوًى (siwan)، سُوًى (suwan), سَواءٌ (sawaa’un), خَلا (khalaa), عَدَا (‘adaa) and حَاشَا (haashaa)
الاسْتِثْناء (the exception) means إخراج (“to take something out”) and in grammar it mean to take something out (using إلا or another tool) that would otherwise have been part of what’s before the tool.
Note: I’m using the word “tool” here because not all of these eight are actually “particles” (حُرُوْف). As you’ll see later, some of them are actually nouns, so we can refer to this mixed bag of nouns and particles as أدَوات (instruments/tools).
An example to consider: نَجَحَ التّلامِيْذُ إلاّ عَامِراً (“The students passed except Amir”). You used إلاّ (“except”) to remove one of the students (Amir), and if you hadn’t made this exception, Amir would have been included in the students who succeeded.
There are a lot of tools used to make exception. Eight are mentioned in الآجُرُّوْمِيَّة, and they fall into three groups: [Read more…] about الاِسْتِثْناء (The exception)