السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته,
Today we’re going to start looking at التَابِعُ لِلْمَرْفُوْعِ (the grammatical follower of a word that’s in raf’).
There are four kinds of grammatical followers (i.e. they come after a word and follow it in status).
This post is going to cover the نَعْت, and the rest will come in later sections إنْ شاء الله
باب النَعْتِ (The chapter on the adjective)
النَعْتُ: تَابِعٌ لِلْمَنْعُوْتِ فِيْ رَفْعِهِ وَنَصْبِهِ وَخَفْضِهِ, وَتَعْرَيْفِهِ وَتَنْكِيْرِهِ, قَامَ زَيْدٌ الْعَاقِلُ, وَرَأَيْتُ زَيْدًا الْعَاقِلَ وَمَرَرْتُ بِزَيْدٍ الْعاقِلِ
The adjective is a follower of the described word in its raf’, nasb and khafdh (jarr) and in its being a definite and indefinite noun. [You would say]: قَامَ زَيْدٌ الْعَاقِلُ (“Zayd, the intelligent, stood”), رَأَيْتُ زَيْدًا الْعَاقِلَ (“I saw Zayd, the intelligent”), and مَرَرْتُ بِزَيْدٍ الْعاقِلِ (“I passed by Zayd, the intelligent”).
The word نَعْتُ (na’t) means “a description”, and the word it’s describing is called the مَنْعُوْت (the “described word”). We can say it’s like an adjective in English except that in Arabic, it will come after the word it’s describing, and not necessarily right after it. “A big house” would be “بَيْتٌ كَبِيْرٌ” (Which is بَيْتٌ – “house”, followed by كَبَيْرٌ – “big”).
Now, there are two kinds of na’t:
- نَعْت حَقِيْقِيّ (“true description”) – Used for an attribute in the described entity
- جاءَ مُحَمَّدٌ الْعاقِلُ (“Muhammad, the intelligent, came”) – العاقِلُ describes مُحَمَّدٌ
- نَعْت سَبَبِيّ (“causal description”) – The attribute isn’t actually in who/what we’re describing, but is in something else related to it. This “something else” is the real reason why we’re mentioning the trait (intelligence, beauty, size, etc.) and is called the sabab (cause). This sabab will have a pronoun going back to the مَنْعُوْت
- جَاءَ مُحَمَّدٌ الْفاضِلُ أبُوْهُ (“Muhammad, whose father is honorable, came”) – We are describing Muhammad, but his father (أبُوْهُ) is the sabab for why we’re saying الْفَاضِلُ (“the honorable”). The pronoun هُ (“his”) in أبُوْهُ refers back to مُحَمَّدٌ