السلام عليكم و رحمة الله,
We’ve gotten through the indicators of raf’, nasb and jarr. Now we can look at the indicators of the last remaining state: جَزْم (jazm).
ُوَلِلْجَزمِ عَلامَتانِ: السُكُوْنُ وَالحَذْف
Jazm has two signs: سُكُوْن (sukoon) and dropping.
You can decide that a word is in jazm if you find one of two things in it:
- Sukoon – it’s the primary indicator of jazm
- حذف (omission of something), and it is the secondary indicator
Each of these indicators has situations as follows.
When sukun is the indicator of Jazm
فَأمّا السُكُونُ فَيََكُونُ عَلامَةً لِلجَزْمِ فِي الفِعْلِ المُضارِعِ الصَحِيحِ الآخر
As for sukun, it is an indicator of jazm in the present tense verb (فعل مضارع) that has a sound (صَحِيح) ending.
The sukoon has only one situation in which it shows that a word is in jazm, and that is in the فعل مضارع (present tense action) with a صَحِيح (sound) ending. What that means is that the ending is not one of the three “defective” letters, which are ا, و and ي.
Some quick examples:
- لَم يَلعَبْ عَلِيٌّ (“Ali has not played”)
- لَم يَنجحْ بَلِيدٌ (“Never has a stupid person succeeded”)
- لَمْ يُسافرْ أخُوكَ (“Your brother hasn’t traveled”)
- لم يَعِدْ إبراهِيمُ خالِداً بِشَيءٍ (“Ibrahim hasn’t promised Khalid anything”)
- لَم يَسألْ بَكرٌ الأُستاذَ (“Bakr hasn’t asked the teacher”)
Each of these actions is in jazm because لمَْ (which is a particle of jazm) comes before it. Because they are present tense actions with sound endings, we use sukoon at the end to show that they are in the state of jazm. Before they changed from the state of raf’ to jazm, they all had a dhammah at the end.