السلام عليكم ورحمة الله,
Welcome to the fourth installment of our series on the indicators of when a word is in نَصب (nasb). We’ve covered فتحة (fathah), the letter ا, and كسرة (kasrah) already. Now we’re going to look at when ي will be used to show nasb.
When ي substitutes for فتحة as the sign of نصب
ِوَأمّا الياءُ فَتَكُوْنُ عَلامَةً لِلنَصْبِ فِي التَثْنِيَةِ وَالجَمْع
As for the ي, it is a sign of nasb in the dual and the masculine plural
We already know what dual nouns (from Going high with رفع, Part 3: ا ) and the masculine plural (from Going high with رفع, Part 2: و) are, so there’s no need to go into that again.
To recap: in the status of raf’, the dual will use ا (so that you’d see it ending with انِ) and the masculine plural will use و (so that you’d see وْنَ at the end).
In the status of nasb however, the dual and the masculine will both use ي. When we go over how ي can be an indicator of جرّ/خفض, we will see that this is also true when they are in that state as well.
- The dual would switch from ا to ي and end with يْنِ (with a fathah on the letter before the ي and a kasrah on the ن). You’d be going from an “aani” sound at the end to “ayni”.
- The plural would switch from a و to ي and end with يْنَ (with a kasrah on the letter before the ي and a fathah on the ن). Here you’d be going from an “oona” sound at the end to “eena”.
The dual noun
- نَطَرْتُ عُصْْفُوْرَينِ فَوْقَ الشَجَرَةِ (“I saw two sparrows over the tree”) – the word was originally عُصْفُرانِ
- اشتَرى أبِيْ كِتابَينِ أحَدُهما لي وَالآخَرُ لِأخِيْ (“My father bought two books, one of them for me and the other for my brother”) – the word was originally كِتابانِ
Each of the words ِعُصْفُوْرَيْن and ِكِتابَيْن is in nasb because it’s the object of an action, and the sign is the ي that has a fathah before it and a kasrah after it. The ن in these dual nouns substitutes for the tanwin that we normally see at the end of a singular noun.
The sound masculine plural
- إنَّ المُتَّقِينَ لَيَكْسِبُونَ رِضا ربِّهِمْ (“Indeed the God-conscious will earn the pleasure of their Lord”) – the word was originally المُتَّقُونَ
- نَصَحْتُ المُجْتَهِدينَ بالانْكِبابِ عَلى المُذاكَرةِ (“I advised the ones who strive to apply themselves to memorization”) – the word was originally المُجْتَهِدُوْنَ
Each of the words َالمُتَّقِيْن and َالمُجْتَهِدِيْن is in nasb because it is the object of an action (first example) or influence by إنَّ (second example). The sign of nasb is the ي that has a kasrah before and a fathah after, as it is a sound masculine plural. Just like with the dual nouns, the ن is a substitute for the tanwin that we would normally see in the singular noun.