السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته
Last time we went into I’rab and how words commonly show their status using vowels. This kind of change is called لَفْظِي (“pronounced”) because its’s explicit and is heard clearly. Today, we’re going to “look beyond the obvious” and cover something called “implied status”. There are some words whose endings do not change even when they move between states due to one of three obstacles preventing that change (explanation to follow):
- Impossibility of pronouncing it
- Difficulty/heaviness in pronouncing it
- Association with something that brings another vowel on it
Let’s look at a sentence that has examples of all three in it:
يَدْعُو الفَتَى وَ القاضِيْ وَ غُلامِيْ (“The youth, the judge and my servant boy call”)
- The word الفَتَى (“the youth”) ends with an alif (which is impossible to put a vowel on)
- When we used the the word يُسافِرُ (“he travels”), it had a dhammah at the end in its original state of رفع. Likewise, the word يَدْعُوْ (“he calls”) was originally يَدْعُوُ (with a dhammah at the end). In this case, it is possible to put a vowel on the last letter (و), but it’s just harder to pronounce that way, so it’s يَدْعُوْ (with a sukun at the end) instead.
- القاضِيْ was originally القاضِيُ (with a dhammah), but to make the pronunciation easier, the dhammah was dropped.
- The word غُلامِيْ (“my servant boy”) is really two words attached together: غُلام (“servant boy”) and the ي that means “me”. It’s not impossible or difficult to pronounce the vowels on the letter م here. What happened here instead is that the ي of the “me” comes with a kasrah on the letter before it(م), so there’s no room to put a dhammah on it.
Taking a closer look a the sentence, we see why the words don’t have dhammah at the end like they should normally do:
|Word in the sentence||State and reason||Intended vowel and reason for implied status|
|يَدعُو||رَفْع – There is nothing else that forces it to another state||Dhammah – Heaviness of pronunciation|
|الفَتى||رفع – Doer of the action يَدْعُوْ||Dhammah – Impossibility of placing the dhammah at the end|
|القاضِيْ||رفع – Joined by و to الفتى||Dhammah – Heaviness of pronunciation|
|غُلام||رفع – Joined by و to الفتى||Dhammah – The place for dhammah already has kasrah due to the ي that associates word to the speaker|