السلام عليكم ورَحمة الله وبركاته,
We’re looking at the seven situations when a noun will be in the state of رَفْع (raf’), and this is the second one: the نائب الفاعِلِ (substitute for the doer). You’ll know what that means after we explain it…
بابُ المَفْعُوْلِ الَّذِيْ لَمْ يُسَمَّ فاعِلُهُ: وَهُوَ الاسْمُ الْمَرْفُوْعُ الَّذِيْ لَمْ يُذْكَرْ مَعَهُ فاعِلُهُ
The section on the “object whose doer is not named”, and it is the noun in raf’ whose doer is not mentioned with it.
Sometimes a sentence will have a verb, a doer and an object. In the examples below, you have a verb, followed by a doer in رَفْع (raf’), followed by an object in نَصْب (nasb). This is the normal way to have a verb in a sentence, and it’s called مَعْرُوْف (active), because the doer is mentioned.
- قَطَعَ مَحْمُوْدٌ الغُصْنَ (“Mahmood cut the branch”)
- حَفِظَ خَلِيْلٌ الدَرْسَ (“Khaleel memorized the lesson”)
- يَقْطَعُ إبراهِيْمُ الغُصْنَ (“Ibrahim is cutting the branch”)
- يَحْفَظُ عَلِيٌّ الدَرْسَ (“Ibrahim is memorizing the lesson”)
Other times, someone will leave out the doer, and he’ll just mention the verb and the object. When you leave out the doer this is called مَجُهُوْل (passive), and the verb and the object will have to change form. We’ll talk about how the verb will change in a little bit, but first let’s see how the object will change.
The object, which should normally be in nasb, will have to be put in raf’ and follow the same rules that the doer would follow. It’s going to step up and fulfill the rules that the doer was going to meet. We covered these rules in The فاعل (Doer), but I’ll repeat them here:
- It has to be a noun
- In the state of raf’
- Comes after the verb (doesn’t necessarily have to be immediately after)
That’s why “the object whose doer is not named” is also called “the substitute for the doer”, because if the doer isn’t there, something has to step up and assume its place. Now let’s see how the verb will change …